In 1989 the Terrasolid Ltd started to develop user-friendly and effective 3 dimensional applications for surveying and infrastructural planning. As a result of an overall improvement several applications become available for surveying, field-modeling, designing streets and underground cable-networks, and land design.
In this product-group specific appliances belong that used for completing tasks, e.g. laser scanning, finishing procedures on photography, and processing drilling examination data. Complex, effective and low-cost tools are assuring the reading of digital data, and safeguarding the flow of data between surveys, planing and the position of measuring appliances.
The Terra-applications could be integrated with MicroStation V8, Bentley Map, Bentley Map PowerView and PowerCivil.
TerraMatch is a sophisticated application for correcting laser data points optimized for MicroStation V8, Bentley Map, Bentley Map PowerView and PowerCivil. This powerful package is a result of joint development efforts by Digpro AB, Stockholm, and Terrasolid. Digpro has developed the core adjustment logic and Terrasolid has complemented that with a MicroStation based graphical user interface.
Laser points displayed according to the flightline numbers.
Laser points on a building roof show a mismatch between different flight lines
Laser points after matching process.
TerraMatch compares overlapping laser strips with each other and corrects orientation parameters to obtain the best fit and improved accuracy of the laser data. The adjustment is based on measured differences between the xyz shape or the intensity of laser points from different strips. The user can decide, if TerraMatch matches all the data points or only points from selected flight lines.
• A fully automatic procedure for correction of laser scanned surfaces
• Rigid modeling of errors in orientation
• Least-squares adjustment for estimation of orientation errors
• The observations are differences in elevation and/or intensity
• Area based matching adjusted to the geometry of laser
• “Data-snooping” for detection of gross errors
• Automatic adjustment and control of laser data
• Integrated with an existing software package for processing laser data.
TerraModeler is a full featured terrain modeling application optimized for MicroStation V8, Bentley Map, Bentley Map PowerView and PowerCivil. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) surface models of ground, soil layers or design surfaces can be created from survey data, graphical elements or XYZ text files. Surface models and iso-contours can be used to visualize the distribution of parameters such as temperature, noise, contaminant concentrations etc. Any number of different TINs can be linked to the same design file.
TerraModeler is very user friendly. High productivity can be learned quickly and easily. If you find other terrain modeling applications too difficult to use and expensive, TerraModeler is for you. TerraModeler is an excellent choice for:
• Civil and Geotechnical engineers
• Architects and Urban planners
• Environmental engineers
• Contractors and Quantity surveyors
• Cartographers and Photogrammetrists
MicroStation TerraModeler combined with other Terra applications is Your basic tool to model the environment.
TerraModeler creates quickly an optimized surface model (TIN) from survey coded elements automatically. Alternatively, you can create a surface model from graphical elements selected by level, element type and symbology. TINs up to one million points have been created with TerraModeler for MicroStation.
You can add vertices of graphical elements to an existing surface model. Valid element types include lines, line strings, curves, complex shapes, element labels, circles, etc.
Addional intermediate points can be generated along long breaklines. Redundant survey data can be ignored based on a user defined tolerance.
Contour maps can be generated automatically. Contours can be drawn as curves with smooth vertices or as line string with sharp vertices. The user can specify the intervals of minor, basic and major contours. The contours can be distinguished from each other by line color, weight or style.
Surface models can be displayed as triangulated and grid networks with colors changing according to surface elevation or slope. The user can freely choose the colors of schemes. You can also specify the width of the grid and whether or not a grid square should be drawn flat at the elevation of its center point.
Different types of surface regions can be separated from each other by domains. Domains such as Ground, Grass, Rock, Forest or Road could have their own coloring systems and be linked with specific surface materials in rendered images.
TerraModeler lets you view the elevation of a surface model and place elements on that elevation.
Surface models need often modification after their creation. TerraModeler lets you edit a TIN on a point-by-point basis:
• Insert new points or move existing points to new XYZ locations
• Delete existing points
• Construct new breaklines or delete existing breaklines
• Insert points along breaklines
• Identify triangles one by one for including or excluding into the TIN
You can also modify areas bounded by a fence or a drawing element:
• Flatten the TIN points to a fixed elevation
• Move the points up or down with a given distance
• Move the points either up or down according to the selected surface
• Include or exclude triangles
• Create voids
• Delete modeling points
Void areas inside a surface model can be created by inserting an element as a boundary into the surface model.
TerraModeler lets you delete, copy, merge, and subtract TINs.
TerraModeler calculates volumes accurately between two surfaces using a grid based or prismoidal method. The calculation area can be bounded by a fence or a third surface.
The calculation report contains cut and fill volumes and areas. A surface cut limit, if entered, computes cut volume separately for places where the cut depth is less than the given limit.
Alternatively you can calculate volumes along an alignment element using section templates to define the excavation. It is very suitable for calculating volumes of trenches.
The ability to view quantity calculation in colours improves the reliability of the results.
Graphical elements such as lines and cells can be placed on the three dimensional terrain model. You can enter a .dz. value, which positions the origin of the element above or below the surface.
Three-dimensional areas can be automatically filled with cells. This can be used for instance to generate a forest by filling an area with tree cells. The area can be bounded by a fence or by a closed shape and the user can define a random variation parameter for the placement of cells.
All linear elements and cells can be dropped to follow a surface model. A two-dimensional shape will remain unchanged but its three- dimensional shape will be forced to follow the elevation of the model.
TerraModeler can read XYZ surface points from an ASCII file. These points can be either random points or breakline points. Alternatively, triangulated models from other applications can be imported directly.
Text files with XYZ coordinates of triangulated surface models can be exported. When writing points to a plain XYZ text file, TerraModeler will output random points and breakline points to separate files. When writing to a survey file, TerraModeler will identify random and breakline points by a feature code.
Supported file formats are Geodimeter, Gemini, Tekla, Wild GRE, Wild COGO, XYZ Text, Point & edges text file, LandXML 1.0/1. 2, 4ce DOT, GMS, SMS / WMS, ICC, Moss triangulation, WorldToolKit NFF, SiteWorks DTM, Intergraph GRD, Disimp, NTF, binary rasters.
You can create three dimensional sectional views and two dimensional profiles. A section view is a rotated 3D view along a section line. It is ideal for design purposes because it lets you place elements easily to their true 3D positions.
Two dimensional profiles, or cross sections, are generated by specifying an alignment using linear elements such as lines, shapes, complex chains and shapes. The profile can be positioned anywhere in the design file and updated automatically after a surface model has been modified.
Interactive 3D sectional views serve as a powerful drawing aid. These can be used to place elements in a true 3D position.
Airborne laser data can now be used for detection of planar surfaces like building roofs. In this process digital airial photos and 2D building footprint vectors help processing, if such are available.
Minimum distances between ground, trees or buildings and power lines can detected and displayed by using laser points.
Classify Ground Points Fast and Reliable
Filtering of ground points may be one of the most important routines of TerraScan. Many other classification tools compare the elevation of other points to the ground surface created from ground points.
The classification routine consists of two phases. At first TerraScan searches the initial points and builds an initial temporary TIN model from the searched points. Triangles in this initial model are mostly below the ground with only the vertices touching ground. Before starting this process the real low points must be searched by some different routine of TerraScan. Often some of these “Low points” are lower than the other points in the ground vicinity and they must be removed.
In the second phase of classifying ground points, TerraScan starts molding the model upwards by iteratively adding new laser points to it. Each added point makes the model to follow the real ground surface more and more closely.
Iteration parameters determine how close a point must be to a triangle plane so that the point can be accepted to the model.
Projects and Macros Automise Working
A project defines how the complete data set is divided into smaller parts. These geographical regions are called blocks in the TerraScan’s terminology.
The main benefits from defining a project are:
• You can import points and let the application utomatically divide points into geographical regions. This is required as input data is often in flight line order but we need all the points from a geographical region when performing classification.
• You can run macros that automatically process every geographical region. This helps to automate classification, coordinate transformation, thinning and data output tasks.
Macros provide a method to automate the processing steps. The best level of automation you reach by combining macros with the projects.
The macros consist of a number of processing steps, which are executed one after the other.The processing steps can classify points, delete points, transform points, output points, update views or call a function in another MDL application through evaluation of an expression.
TerraScan for MicroStation is dedicated software for processing laser scanned data. It can easily process hundreds of millions of points as all routines are tweaked for optimum performance.
TerraScan is an extremely flexible and versatile application. Processing procedures can be automated by customizing own macro programs and by using user-defined project structures.
TerraScan reads points into the design file from any ASCII XYZ text files and several binary files (LAS, LDI, DTE, EBN). Its own binary file format (BIN) allows you to work with smaller file size and faster access.
Create City Models by Vectorizating Buildings
TerraScan provides tools for creating fully three dimensional vectorized models of buildings from laser data. The vectorization is based on planar roof surfaces which the application finds among the laser point cloud. The complete model includes both the wall and roof surfaces of the building.
If accurately oriented aerial images are available, those can be used to position roof edges more accurately. The application automatically creates a perspective view in which the vector model can be viewed as seen from the focal point of an aerial image. As the plane equations are known from laser data, the edge positions can be measured from a single image.
• Coordinate transformations. Adjusting laser points to geoid models; converting geoid models.
• Views point clouds three dimensionally with various colored displays.
• Defines point-classes such as ground, vegetation, buildings or power lines.
• Classifies points manually or by using automatic routines.
• Manages trajectories of the laser scanner or other sensors. This tool is required for deleting overlapping points from overlapping flightlines; for applying known heading, roll and pitch corrections to laser data; for fixing mismatches in laser data (TerraMatch); for displaying videos linked to position (TerraPhoto).
• Searches and removes erroneous points.
• Thins and smoothens ground points when creating terrain models.
• Exports elevation colored raster images.
• Drapes a linear element (e.g. street curbs) to run on the elevation of laser points.
• Tools for drawing 3D vector data based on laser points.
• Tools for extracting 3D buildings.
• Tools for extracting powerlines and towers.
• Tools for extracting railroads.
• Passes ground points to TerraModeler for surface modeling.
• Most of the automatic classification routines can be combined in macros for batch processing.
• In combination with TerraSlave macros can be executed outside TerraScan and MicroStation, even on other workstations over a LAN.
• Supports a large number of input laser point (ASCII, SCAN6, SCAN 16, TOPEYE, EARTHDATA, LEICA, LAS) and trajectory file formats which have been hard coded into the program logic.
TerraScan is fully integrated with TerraModeler, TerraPhoto, TerraMatch and the other Terra applications.
TerraScan creates an editable surface model, which can be visualized in TerraModeler and which is actively linked to loaded laser points. This feature is particularly useful to validate ground classification and remove possible remaining low points.
TerraSurvey is a survey drawing application built on top of Bentley products (MicroStation V8, Bentley Map, Bentley Map PowerView and PowerCivil). TerraSurvey reads in survey data from a text file and creates a survey drawing as a 3D design file. It recognizes automatically a number of survey data formats. By adding your own file format definitions, you can read in practically any files that are based on coordinate or angle fields.
It does not matter how the input file was created! You just load in the data, assign drawing rules, check for errors, make necessary corrections . all this interactively while viewing the resulting survey drawing.
TerraSurvey Bridges the Gap between Surveyors and Designers.
Each survey point is assigned a feature code which defines what was surveyed like a tree, a road center line, an elevation point or a manhole cover. The graphical appearance of a feature is defined by drawing rules. There are no limitations on how many drawing rules are assigned to a feature.
When processing survey data, TerraSurvey tries to find a matching feature code for each of the survey points. If a match is found, the application goes through all drawing rules assigned to that feature. The actual graphical presentation is created by combining the survey point information with the settings in drawing rules.
You should create at least one feature list of your own. This feature list should include all feature codes used by the survey team in your organization. In the long run, you will probably want to create several feature lists for different purposes. You may need to create a separate feature list for processing surveys done by an outside surveying company because they will probably use a different set of feature codes. You may also want to have different feature lists for creating different types of survey drawing for specific tasks. Feature lists are stored as text files. Only one feature list can be active at a time.
Feature codes and their drawing rules defines the graphical presentation of a survey drawing. TerraModeler can use feature codes to decide which elements can be accepted as valid data for a selected surface.
TerraSurvey is able to read in survey data from various sources. Supported coordinate based file formats include Geodimeter, Moss genio, SDRmap, Sokkia, Wild xyz GSI-8, Wild xyz GSI-16, MTM, Binary database, KF85 and David file formats. Supported angle based file formats include Geodimeter angle, Nikon angle, Sokkia angle, Wild angle GSI-8, Wild angle GSI-16 and Wild.
The ability to create user defined file formats lets you read in practically any text files containing point or observation data organized into column fields. When reading in a file, the application recognizes the data format automatically so there is no need for conversions between file formats.
TerraSurvey supports three coordinate transformation methods to convert survey file point coordinates directly into the design file coordinate system.
TerraSurvey reads in also angle based survey files and computes adjusted coordinates for stations and surveyed points. You can control which reference observations to known points or to other stations will be used in the calculation. TerraSurvey will automatically solve station locations when sufficient reference observations have been defined.
If you find other applications too hard to use or simply insufficient, take a look at TerraSurvey !
Draw Point Table tool draws a tabular listing of survey points in the design file. It extracts survey point information from the survey elements and creates a table of points with selected feature codes.
List Survey tool creates a text file listing from the survey drawing. The output file format can be any of the built-in or the user-defined survey file formats. You can choose to output all the survey points or filter the points by the feature code.
List Elements tool creates the listing from the vertices of graphical elements filtered by level and element type.
View Data Sources tool allows viewing of survey elements by the data sources from which they have originated from. A survey drawing is often a combination of data from various sources which may differ by their accuracy, reliability or creation date. For example, you could see where an older survey data overlaps the more recent and reliable surveys.
Show Survey Info tool lets you view survey information of an element.
Set Scale tool sets a plotting scale and rescales a drawing. Plotting scale affects all survey text elements and those cells for which the size has been defined as fixed millimeter height on paper.
Hide Overlapping Texts tool finds overlapping text elements and hides the extra elements by moving them to a specified level.
Soften Element tool softens elements by adding new vertices around sharp corners. The survey elements appears smoother and more natural when creating visualization images.
Whenever a survey file is loaded, the loaded points are first displayed in the Loaded survey points window. While this window is open, the survey drawing is visible as temporary elements. You can redraw them whenever you have modified the survey data.
There are several methods for validating and fixing survey data before generating a final survey drawing. Problems can be fixed by doing any of the following:
• Fill in missing information. For example, you can assign feature codes to uncoded survey points.
• Delete erroneous points.
• Modify survey point information such as coordinate values or dimension parameters.
• Create a new feature in the active feature list if you encounter a new feature code.
• Change the graphical presentation of a feature by modifying the drawing rules in the feature list.
• Attach another cell library if correct cells are not found.
Find and fix intersecting breaklines.
When closing the window, the applications asks you if you want to draw the survey drawing permanently into the design file.
The upper list box displays all the survey points extracted from a survey data file. The lower list box shows all the encountered errors when reading in the survey points.
Find Intersecting Breaklines tool allows viewing of the locations where survey drawing elements would cause intersecting breaklines in a surface model. There are four methods to fix the errors by moving a survey point into a new location.
TerraPhoto is specifically developed for processing images captured together with laser data during a survey mission. The software enables the production of rectified images from terrestial/mobile projects and ortho mosaics from airborne projects. TerraPhoto runs on MicroStation V8, Bentley Map, Bentley Map PowerView and PowerCivil softwares.
Due to the inaccuracy of the GPS/ IMU system the information of trajectories may be insufficient. Sometimes the camera may shake during the survey too. By searching tie points by TerraPhoto let you to adjust both trajectories and camera calibration before orthorectification. This adjustment is important especially if your target is to reach the best possible accuracy for the location of the orthoimages.
The positioning of the source images can be refined by using tie points for image-to-image adjustment while ground control point can be involved for improving the absolute accuracy of the image block. With TerraPhoto you can apply manual, semi-automatic or fully automatic methods for searching the tie points. After the tie points are defined TerraPhoto creates an orthophoto mosaic automatic. The system computes an elevation value for each pixel in the orthophoto based on the triangulated surface model.
With additional functionality, such as color adjustment options, the creation of selection shapes for several object types or areas (e.g. buildings, water), the inclusion of vector models for true-ortho photo production, TerraPhoto lets you create ortho photos of good positional and color-coordinated quality.
With TerraPhoto you can create calibrated images from your photos taken along with your scanning project. Besides starting a camera calibration from scratch, TerraPhoto is able to convert calibration files from several mobile and airborne systems into its own camera file format. It reads numerous image formats, such as ECW, GeoTIFF, TIF, BMP, CIT, COT, RLE, PIC, PCX, GIF, JPG2000 and PMG.
TerraPhoto offers many tools for visualizing laser and image data together, partly in combination with tools from TerraScan and TerraModeler. This includes the opportunity of draping ortho photos on a ground model or on building roofs, the creation of wall textures from horizontally-looking cameras of mobile or airborne systems, as well as the display of rendered views. With TerraPhoto you can also create fly-through animations from laser and image data in an easy and intuitive way. Finally, the extraction of color values from images or ortho photos to laser points can be performed with TerraPhoto and TerraScan.